From Light

I haven’t posted in a while, in part because I’ve been busy with a lot of things. Maybe I’ll make posts about some of those other things at one point, but right now I just want to talk about From Light.

Logo for the game.

From Light is a game that I have had the pleasure and honor to help develop. It was originally created as a class project by two other students, but when it showed promise they decided to develop it further. Our team has now grown to 10 people, all (save one) students at USC.

The game is a 2D puzzle platformer based on long-exposure photography (holy hell have I said that line a lot). Basically, you can etch out light trails onto film using the stars in the sky, then jump on those trails to navigate the levels.

I mention that I’ve said the above line a lot because the game got accepted into the PAX 10 for PAX 2015, and I went up to Seattle last weekend with 3 other teammates to show the game off at the four-day gaming convention. This, you may have gathered, is completely and mindbogglingly awesome. I get to work on a game that is recognized and validated by real-world people! And truly, the reception of PAX was way more than I ever would have expected. People frickin’ loved the game!

 PAX 10 Logo  Photo of us at the booth.

And at PAX one of the things I heard again and again was that taking a game to completion, to the point where it could be shipped and sold as an actual game (y’know, for money), is an invaluable experience. Not only do you get a sellable game and a fantastic line on your resume, you also get all the experience involved in taking a game from 80% to 100%, and all the non-development business stuff involved in getting your game out to consumers. Needless to say, this convinced me that we should take From Light to completion. Before, I had been hesitant because as students it was unlikely we could put in the time to finish it fully. However, I am now willing to work harder than I have ever worked before to finish this game.

I’ll continue to post either here or on Gamasutra about development (both technical and non-technical posts), so make sure to look out for that.

In the meantime, if it strikes your fancy please “like” the game on Facebook, or follow us on Twitter, or just download the game from our website.

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Applied Sociology

After being at Stanford for 5 weeks, the dorm I’m living in got together to do an activity called “Crossing the Line” (of which I’m sure many people are familiar) that involves a statement of varying ambiguity being made, followed by everyone who identifies with the statement stepping across a line on the floor for a short amount of time. I’m also taking a sociology class, and I’ll be honest: I was watching people’s behavior most of the time.

As humans, we assign fixed “levels” of preferred intimacy with persons depending on our relationships with them. Our brain—consciously or otherwise—works to maintain that level.

Many factors play into how we calculate our current intimacy (rather than preferred intimacy) with a person. For example, when you say that you are “close” to someone, you mean that you are comfortable with higher levels of intimacy. Literally, though, standing closer to someone increases your current intimacy. If that goes beyond your preferred level, it has to be compensated by decreasing intimacy in some other way. This is why everybody avoids eachother’s gaze in a crowded elevator.

Beyond eye contact and interpersonal distance, other more surprising things influence current intimacy. If you listen to a person’s heartbeat, your preferred interpersonal distance increases. That is, when told to stand a comfortable distance away from the person, you will stand farther away than normal. This works even if the heartbeat is synthesized—you just have to be told that it is from the person in front of you.

This effect works in the other direction. Humans suffer various negative side effects when separated from their intimate partners for long period of time or over long distances. This is, tentatively, a result of the same “preferred intimacy” phenomenon. Skype calls can do much to alleviate this; the sight of a human face works wonders on our social subconscious, even if it is just through a computer screen.

I did not foresee the consequences of taking a sociology class: my perception of large groups is forever changed.

Using Games to Educate

In the last few years we’ve seen the Internet playing a larger and larger role in education. Everyone seems to expect a revolution in education within 20 years. It’s possible, although I don’t think it will come from the direction that everyone thinks it will (see my post on online education). I want to give my two cents about an ancillary approach: videogames. Games don’t have to teach the students anything. In fact, I think they are much more useful as vehicles for the education. Games provide a background, a context, for new knowledge. For example, playing Deus Ex: Human Revolution (play chapters of a game as homework instead of reading chapters of a book?) could help spark discussion about the current situation of computers, implants, artificial intelligence, politics, etc. The experiences within the game outside of the lesson help students stay interested and apply the knowledge, even if subconsciously, beyond the classroom.

I’m going to focus on two games: Kerbal Space Program and Minecraft. Prmrytchr has a whole blog on using Minecraft (as well as other games) in the classroom, so I’m going to focus on the technical aspects.

the KSP splash

Kerbal Space Program (KSP) is an indie game currently under development with an open alpha available for purchase. In the game, you run the space agency of a particularly derpy alien race in their Sol-like system. In sandbox mode, you can throw together rockets, probes, rovers, space stations, planes, and planetary bases from a wide assortment of parts. Then you launch your constructions and control them to the best of your abilities.

KSP Screenshot KSP Screenshot 2

While hard to grasp at first, the game is incredibly fun. You do need a rudimentary understanding of kinematics to play well. This is the first step in its ability to act as an educational tool. While you can strap an engine onto a fuel tank and try to fly it, you quickly realize that doing anything impressive — such as putting an object in orbit — requires a bit of education. While you could watch tutorials, you could also get a lesson about basic kinematics and orbital mechanics from a present teacher. There’s an opportunity for lessons on engineering, as well.

As students become more proficient, more complex opportunities open up to them. Orbital rendezvous and gravitational slingshots get more involved physically. Spacecraft design, between mass conservation, fuel-mass ratio, reaction thruster placement, and properties of engines, is a great opportunity for springboarding into other physics. Other elements of spacecraft design that aren’t simulated in KSP, such as heat management, enter the realm of thermodynamics. Ancillary topics that arise when discussing space exploration can involve relativity and electromagnetic waves.

minecraft splashMinecraft, on the other hand, is about as physically unrealistic as you can get. However, it provides an awesome way to teach logic and economics. Even vanilla Minecraft has a growing arsenal of parts which allow rudimentary (or not so rudimentary) automation. Redstone is a powerful tool for doing any sort of logical manipulation — or teaching it. Watching your toolbox of gates and mechanisms grow out of a few basic ground rules is amazing. Creative minds are pushed to imagining new ways of using redstone, pistons, minecarts, and all the other machines being added in. While I’m not a fan, mods like Technic or Tekkit expand the array of basic parts at your disposal.

Multiplayer in Minecraft is an interesting case study of economic theory. Because the system varies so much from the real world, it provides an outside perspective on traditional economic theory. As you teach the basics of microeconomics, you can analyze why Minecraft’s multiplayer economy and identify how to restrict it. The ultimate goal of the class could be to establish a working economic system on a Minecraft server (perhaps through plugins/mods?).

Redstone Schematic Redstone Screenshot

Whether or not any of these are good ideas, it illuminates how games don’t have to be the primary vehicle of learning to be a useful educational tool. Games can merely be a springboard, a point of reference from which lessons emerge. The game keeps the students interested and grounded in the topic, while providing a useful outlet and vector of fortification for the knowledge they are getting in class.

A Forum for Original Thought

Nowadays, people hunger for original analyses and theses. Their pangs are reflected in the popularity of video series like The Idea Channel, Extra Credits, The Big Picture, and TED talks. Essentially, these are just spoken essays and presentations. They don’t really utilize the video medium, other than by coupling speech with a slideshow of images and (occasionally) video clips. Yet more and more these videos are supplementing written forms like blogs and columns. The intersection of unquenchable desire for consumable media (i.e. videos) and a veritable drought of mental stimulation makes spoken essays a desirable form of idea transmission.

Perhaps the number of quick-fact “educational” videos (e.g. Minute Physics, Smarter Every Day, CGPgrey, Vsauce, numberphile) stimulated the Internet’s interest in science. Indeed, there seems to be a vibe coursing through the tubes that “science is cool”, even if the way science is taught in schools isn’t. The realization that the scientific realm, learning, and, more generally, intelligent thought can be interesting has made people desire an influx of original analysis. It stimulates the brain, giving way to more thought in a way that other media has (mostly) failed to do.

In a world with an endless volume of consumable content, our brains may have become starved. Long periods of rumination can be painful and boring, so we flood it with cheap, throwaway media. Yet these times of inward reflection may serve an important purpose. Unfortunately, our over-stimulation by Internet videos, TV, movies, video games, and music has left us unable to focus on content-delivery platforms like text. We thirst for mental stimulation, yet cannot bear to gain it by taking a step backwards. This conundrum gave rise to the popularity of “spoken essays”. They inject creative, original thought quickly and painlessly. As we mull over this gem, we can further explore the subject in the video comments. Such discussion is evidenced by the considerable quality of comments on the aforementioned videos. Trolls, raging arguments over politics and religion, and insults have given way to (somewhat) thoughtful debates about the video’s analysis. Occasionally the next video in the series might make mention of some interesting points or surprising overall consensus concerning the previous video.

But is the classroom going extinct as a forum for intelligent discussion? Does it have a place in the furious online world? Perhaps. Although quick-fact videos give information, they very rarely delve into the depths of the subject and explain it in a way that lets the viewer solve entirely new problems on their own. They give the information top-soil, but hold back any sort of theoretical bedrock. A viewer might come out feeling smarter, but she will not have gained any tools in her arsenal of critical analysis and problem solving. This is partially due to the medium. Spending a longer amount of time to explore the subject drives off the initial appeal of the videos: quick learning.

However, some video series manage to seriously teach a subject while staying interesting. Crash Course has series on biology, literature, ecology, US history, and world history, served up by the eponymous vlogbrothers. They don’t necessarily go into the same depth that a yearlong course would, but that’s not really a problem here (it’s called “Crash Course” for a reason). The fact that dozens of videos are being spent exploring one subject is a start. Another faux-classroom video venue is Udacity. Udacity is a different beast; it is much more of an exploration into online courses than Crash Course. The physical classroom is woefully unfit to teach computer science. Udacity takes a stab at creating a classroom environment that takes advantage of its medium to deliver a more fitting CS education to a much greater volume of people, while still keeping a basic academic form.

Ultimately, I see a rise in the popularity of systems like Udacity, as well as series like Extra Credits and The Idea Channel. If educators want to truly grab the interest of new generations, they need to examine that which is already capturing attention. Rather than lamenting the advent of consumable, throwaway media, embrace it. There is a place for education in online videos and video games.

Absence

No, I haven’t died, and I haven’t forgot about this blog. But it suffered from a synergy of things. The lack of posts was kicked off by a week long vacation. And the start of school has brought less thinking time, more work, and a berth of people upon which I can unload my thoughts and get instant feedback. This blog was, originally, a place where the ideas that kept circulating in my thoughts could find an outlet of expression. But with many of those original ideas explored, and not many new ideas coming about, I am usually at a loss of topics. Another harmful factor was that I had become more and more concerned about whether my post was coherent, engaging, and adhering to the guidelines of good grammar and writing. Unfortunately, this was never supposed to be a place to put refined written pieces, it was supposed to be a repository of 30 minute heat-of-the-moment explorations into one line of thought. Granted, I did hope it would help me improve my off-the-cuff writing style, but editing was still supposed to be minimal. Lastly, I became rather obsessive over readership. This should have set immediate alarm bells off in my head. I started out with a vow to never try to gain a readership. This was going to be purely about me. Now, I’m going to try to return to that mindset. I do not apologize in advance for any incomprehensible posts that appear to have come from the middle of a train of thought.

History is Cool

I’ve seen some talk about education pop up both on Twitter (Twitter is awesome) and in real life. It’s fairly apparent to many people that education ain’t what it used to be. Which is, to some degree, true. But the fact of the matter is that education hasn’t changed so much as the role that education needs to fulfill. I believe I’ve described in an earlier post the shift from industrial to post-industrial education, but I’ll reiterate.

After the industrial revolution, the demand for factory workers was high. Factory workers only need minimal education, about up to the elementary school level. These blue collar workers would become manual labor. Those who were smart enough went to high school, and became white collar workers. A select few of those people would go to college and become doctors, lawyers, scientists, judges, etc.

The parallax between then and now is obvious. As the demand for laborers has decreased and the demand for engineers has increased, more and more people are attending college. Unfortunately, the education system has not responded well to this influx. The collegiate system has become bloated as it tries to accommodate the new waves of people who need a college degree to get a decent job. The world has lost sight of the true reason for getting an education; although a person does get a certification as a result of attending college, their objective should be to learn.

Public education in elementary schools and high schools has also done a shoddy job of flexing its methods to prepare students for the constantly changing future. For example, children were discouraged from becoming artists 20-30 years ago, yet there is a high demand for creative people to create all sorts of digital media. As a modern example, elementary school curricula stress plate tectonics and other basic geology, drilling it into students’ heads year after year. That may have been necessary 40 years ago, when the theory was young and a majority of people still distrusted it, but now it is commonly accepted fact and there is no reason to stress it.

Not only is early education slow to change with the times, but it actively discourages children, intentionally or not, from learning some necessary skills. For example, the vast majority of people I talk to, even students at TJHSST (one of the top high schools in the country) haven’t seriously read a book (and certainly not for enjoyment) since the 3rd grade. The early grades have given them such a bad experience with reading that they dismiss all books as boring. This, quite obviously, is distressing. Disillusioned and lazy teachers teach interesting subjects like history and math in ways that turn children off, perhaps for life.

But history is cool. Yes, it’s also boring. But so is math, science, programming, reading, writing, foreign language, and sports. My point is, every subject has areas that are uninteresting to the uninitiated, and EVERY subject can be taught in a manner that makes you want to eat your own skull rather than listen to another second of it. The key to teaching a subject is show the student that it is awesome, and then start teaching the basics. Most importantly, though, make sure the student realizes that the field extends far beyond what they are learning right now.

Here are some examples of sweet historical events/times/people:
-The transition from Roman republic to empire
-The Battle of Agincourt
-The Fall of Constantinople
-The Mongols beating the crap out of everyone and being awesome
Nikola Tesla
Charles Babbage (way cooler than Tesla)

But not only are there examples of people who were incredible badasses, but even periods of history like the colonization of North America and the Middle Ages are inspiring. I find that whenever I read a textbook, my mind drifts off as I build a science fiction or fantasy universe which mirrors the status quo of that period in history.

But I digress. Essentially, learning is REALLY FUN. It can also be THE MOST BORING EXPERIENCE EV-OH MY GOD I JUST WANT TO TEAR MY FACE OFF WHY IS THIS SO UNINTERESTING.

Come on guys (yes, you). Step it up.

I’ll end with a quote from Saul Perkins: “My thesis is that 21st century parents should teach their kids three languages: English, Mandarin and coding. Software is so much a part of our lives to today that this is just a fundamental skill that people need.”

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